The process by which information is sought by parties in litigation from the other side. Discovery can be very-limited in many countries, but is extensive in the United States, where documents of all types may be searched for and demanded, including e-mail records, third party subpoenas issued, interrogatories issued, and depositions taken, so long as the activity might lead to evidence usable in court. It is not uncommon for U.S. discovery to result in millions of pages of documents being produced and reviewed, at great expense. The level of discovery granted in the U.S. is controversial, while the limited discovery granted in other jurisdictions is similarly criticized.

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