There are two common meanings:
(1) the Convention of 27 September 1968 on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters—the key convention between EU Member States on jurisdiction in matters raised before more than one country’s courts and the recognition and enforcement of judgments rendered in each other’s courts. The Brussels Convention was modified and amended in all EU member states (except Denmark) by Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial disputes, known as the Brussels Regulation. There is a similar convention, called the Lugano Convention, which applies between EU member states and Switzerland, Iceland, and Norway.
(2) the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, which relates to constraining the footprint (or accessibility) of satellite broadcasts of copyrighted materials to areas where the programmer has the right to broadcast such materials.
The term Brussels Convention also arises in the family/matrimonial law context, referring to Council Regulation (EC) No 1347/2000 of 29 May 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility for the children of both spouses, known as “Brussels II.”