Output Restraints

Agreement(s) between manufacturers to limit their output of certain goods or services, so as to reduce competition and raise prices. Usually illegal under Antitrust, Competition, or unfair trade/competition laws, and considered a form of cartel, although most countries do provide a mechanism where such restrictions can be legally imposed with government consent (under the Noerr-Pennington Doctrine and its analogues), for example agricultural quotas, sometimes for a limited period of time to allow an industry to restructure, commonly accompanied by international trade safeguards.

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