Also known as conformance testing, means the testing of a product to determine whether it complies (or conforms) with a standard. There are two types of such standards, industry technical standards and mandatory safety standards. The latter include the CE electrical and EMC/RFI safety standards for the EU, the FCC electromagnetic interference standards, and more. It is usually not legal to sell products that do not comply with the mandatory standards applicable in a given jurisdiction. A good summary of the EU approach to standards is available from www.newapproach.org.